Translation Service in Singapore

Summary(100 words)

In Singapore, just like in the other parts of the United Kingdom, English is the most spoken language. Due to the increase in business activities (especially international businesses), the need to translate from English to other languages and vise versa has emerged. To cater for these needs, translation agencies are rapidly springing up in Singapore to meet these demands of businesses. Chambers Translations is among the oldest firms to be established, as it was established in 1995 for the purpose of providing translation services to corporations that conduct business around the world. Chambers has quickly become one of the most respected translation agencies in Singapore.

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There are over eightySingaporetranslation servicesas listed in Singapore. Some have been serving for years, while others just arrived. Their main job is to translate documents from one language to a target language. Most hire translators with a certain degree of proficiency to complete the tasks. These employees translate documents word for word as much as possible while maintaining the rules of the target language. Once completed, the document is a reasonable translation of the original document.

Chambers Translations doesn’t accept ‘ordinary’translators. They hire native speakers who are familiar with the business or corporation needing the translation. The translator will have experience with the legal, medical, pharmaceutical, or other professions. This experience is valuable when creating contracts or other legal documents that might need to stand up in court. Chambers knows that the wording on these documents is crucial and can make a difference if an issue arises needing an arbitrator.

In 2015, Chambers will be celebrating their twentieth year in business. During that time they have adapted their services many times to meet the needs of their clients. As businesses grow and their translation needs along with them, Chambers has been able to meet those needs. They pride themselves on knowing business trends and being able to anticipate the needs of the client before the client does. They are dedicated to their clients and approach each project as if it were their own. There is no project too big or small for Chambers to translate to one of the eighty languages available. Chambers offers one of the best Singaporetranslation services.

Chambers Translations has a special way of working for their clients to ensure maximum satisfaction;they bring the client onboard as part of the team. By working as a team with the client rather than an employee of the client, the project is completed with a set of higher standards. This attention to detail has brought many clients back to Chambers for repeat projects. Chambers cliental list is comprised of 73% returning customers.

One of the many services Chambers does for clients is Certified Translation. A legal document must be certified before it can be accepted by the company. Chambers certifies all legal documents including marriage certificates, birth certificates, return to work releases, educational transcripts, and many more. A complete list is available on their website at

While all projects are completed in a timely manner, if a client has a deadline, Chambers Translations does all it can to meet that target. Satisfaction of the client is paramount to Chambers Translations. When Chambers accepts a project, it becomesmore than a job. It is a goal they intend to meet. If the client isn’t satisfied, neither is Chambers.

Chambers Translations is one of the most respected translation agencies because of their attention to details, approach to the project, efficient services, quick turn around, and low rates.

Translation Services in Singapore

Summary(100 words)

One of the most respected translations services, Chambers Translations is located around the world. One of their busiest locations is Singapore.Singaporeis quickly becoming a major center for business. The need for translation services has increased in the last 20 years.

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Chambers Translation services is one of the most respected companies in Singapore. Chambers Translations began in 1995 with the goal to serve business translating documents. Since that time services in Singapore have increased with the demand of the clients. Many businesses are moving their facilities to Singapore. It is a more centralized location for shipping products around the world. Chambers listens and takes the customer’s expectations seriously. Every client becomes part of the Chambers team of project consultants, translators, proofreaders, copywriters, and developers.

Conducting business around the world requires some extra services such as translation. Hiring a translation service in Singapore gives the client greater access to the service when needed. Chambers Translations is known for their efficiency, dependability, and quick completion of projects. They have earned the respect of their clients. Their business is comprised of 73% returning clients. These companies returned to Chambers because the quick delivery and excellent quality.Many of the companies on Fortune 500 list use Chambers translations in Singapore including Sony, Johnson and Johnson, Hewlett Packard, and Rolls Royce.

Chambers Translations is able to translate into 80 different languages. They hire native speaking translators who are also familiar with a profession. The translators are not only proficient in language but also have experience in the legal, medical, pharmaceutical, corporate, and other professions. This allows them to be knowledgeable of the professional verbiage used in contract negotiation.

Chambers treats every project as if it were their own. The size of the project is not an issue with Chambers Translations. Each project receives the same care and effort whether large or small. Chambers is known for their attention to detail and stand behind every translation project they accept.

Occasionally, a client needs certified translation for legal matters. Chambers certifies documents such as death certificates, marriage license, release to work, birth certificates, and many more. Chambers also offers transcription services. Transcription is documenting every word said in a meeting or the court of law which can be crucial if an issue arises.

Other services offered by Chambers include copywriting and editing, proofreading, dubbing and voiceover, multilingual, website and software localization, and typesetting.

The efficient way Chambers handles translations, allows them to keep the rates at one of the lowest in the industry. The cost of jobs depends on several factors. It is based on whether the translation is required in a camera ready format, if the source document is provided electronically, the length of the project,and the languages required. To receive a quote, click the Quotetab on the menu bar. Complete the form with as much information as possible including format of the project, timeline, and the languages required. Please leave a glossary of terms. This will help Chambers Translations pair the project with a knowledgeable translator.

Translating Malaysian Languages

Summary(100 words)

Malaysia’s economy is one of the fastest growing in Asia. According to reports, it is growing at a rate of 4.7% annually. This economic boom has prompted many businesses to move or build a branch in Malaysia. Language is a paramount role player for success of any business. Since not all people involved in the business transactions understand the various languages used, translation from one language to the other are very important. Translation services are offered for the three main languages of Malaysia. The translation services of the three main languages; Malay translations, Mandarin translations and Tamil translations can be accessed by logging into this website,

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Malaysia has the third largest economy in Asia and continues to grow at a rate of 4.7% each year. This constant growth has spurred many businesses to relocate at least a portion of their production to Malaysia. Given the many languages spoken in Asia, many businesses have had to seek the services of translations companies.Chambers Translations is one of the companies which have proven to be very helpful to client. They are very accurate in their translations and they have hospitable staff. You can contact them by logging to

The three main languages of Malaysia are Malay, Mandarin, and Tamil. These languages may be spoken and understood by most people in Asia, but the differences within them, makes translating them a daunting task. When the translation is critical to business, one would be wise to consider a respected and experienced translation service.

Malay is called BahasaMelayu (Malay language) in Singapore and Brunei. Malay was used widely in the 15th century and considered the trade language. It is considered a classical language and still uses pronunciations and language rules that are centuries old. It is not a tonal language and many words are remarkably similar in sound. It does not use grammatical words to denote gender. The same word is used for all pronouns. There is no subject/verb agreement or words to describe time, such as past, present, and future tense. Malay translations would need to follow these intricate grammatical rules of the language for an accurate translation.

The Mandarin language is known by several names including Northern Chinese, Guanhua, and Kuan-hua. It uses four tones to distinguish words or syllables that have different meanings, but have the same consonants and vowels. It is mostly a monosyllabic language with a fixed word order. Modern Standard Chinese is spoken by the majority of the population of China and Taiwan. Mandarin translations need to distinguish words or syllables within the document for precise translation.

Tamil is considered the first classical Indian language and is spoken in Malaysia, England, Canada, South Africa, Germany, United States, France, and other well established nations.Although the classical language is still used, the written Tamil has adopted European-style punctuation and consonant clusters. Other changes include more complex sentence structures. Those preparing Tamil translations need to be familiar with both the classical language and modern writing rules to translate documents correctly.

Chambers Translations, one of the most respected services, supports over 80 languages including Malay, Mandarin, and Tamil. The translators are familiar with all the nuances of each language and have experience in the field they serve. Translators at Chambers Translations are experienced in the fields of law, medicine, and pharmaceutical. Chambers has a reputation for treating each project as if it were their own. There is no job too small or too large for Chambers Translations. They guarantee the translation will be accurate and meet the client’s deadline as well as their needs. Clients of Chambers Translations are so please the many return for future projects and constitute 83% of the entire clientele of Chambers. For translation services, you can contact them at or logging into their website at

Thai Translation from Chambers

Summary (100 words)

Business transactions have increased in Asia at an amazing rate over the last few years, resulting in a need for qualified translators speaking the languages of the region. One of the most prominent languages of the region is Thai, spoken by around 65 million people. Chambers Translations is one of the leading companies translating to Thai for business.

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Many businesses have moved all or part of their facilities to Asia. While Asia has enjoyed the economic boom, the transactions have resulted in a need for translators familiar with the languages of Asia. Chambers Translations hires native speakers who are also familiar with business to ensure accuracy in both language and business.

One of the more difficult languages to learn is Thai. Although the syntax or order of the words is a simple pattern, the similar sounds of many letters complicateacquisition of the language. That is the reason Chambers Translations only hires native Thai speakers. Not many translation companies have a policy of hiring only native speakers. Chambers Translations goes a step further. Their Thai translators must also be familiar with the business they are serving. They are experienced with legal, medical, pharmaceutical, and other professions.

Chambers knows the complexity of contract negotiations and the problems inaccurate wording can cause in a legal situation. Employees who do Thai translation understand the seriousness of business transactions and the finality of a contract. When a Chambers Thai translation is used to conduct business, the client can be sure he or she is getting the best in translation services.

Services from Chambers Translations Thai speakers include more than just translation, which is the art of converting documents or phrases from one target language to another. They also offer Interpretation which is basically paraphrases the information every few sentences. Three different types of Interpretation are available. Whisper, the translator stands close to the client and whispers the interpretation. When the translator speaks after the speaker it is called Consecutive. Simultaneous is when the translator speaks at the same time as the speaker.

Another service of Chambers Translations available in Thai is Transcription or the art of putting the spoken word from a meeting or courtroom into writing. These transcriptions are certified by Chambers Translations.

Chambers Translations is the one of the oldest and most respected firms in the translation business. They have been serving the translation needs of their clients since 1995. Clients know that Chambers translators approach each project as if it were their own and take every task seriously regardless of size or difficulty. They make every effort to complete the request quickly and efficiently. This efficiency is what allows them to keep rates at some of the lowest in the business. Their commitment, quality service, dependability, and accuracy have earned the trust of their clients. Chambers is proud to say that 73% of their business is repeat customers. These customers were satisfied with the service they received and chose Chambers Translations again when they needed translation services.

Chambers Translations continues to grow and expand their services to keep up with this fast paced conglomerate world. It is their goal to be able to anticipate the needs of their clients and be equipped to meet those needs when the client asks.

Elite Translation Company in Singapore

Summary (100 words)

The elite translation company, Chambers Translation, has been serving Singapore since 1995. The company was founded to assist companies that wish to expand their enterprises to the rest of the world. More than just translations, Chambers has become one of the most trusted transcription companies in Singapore.

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World trade is nothing new, but over the last twenties years, it has expanded tremendously in Asia. This has created a need for translation service in Singapore. With contracts and major deals at stake, companies need reliable translation service. One company in Singapore that has been meeting translation needs with prompt, accurate, and trustworthy service since 1995 is Chambers Translations. Their many services are completed with attention to detail. Every translation project is taken seriously no matter how small or big.

Chambers Translations hires people who are experienced in a field and a language to protect the client’s interest. They are also bankers, lawyers, medical professionals, paralegals, pharmacists, and many other professions. Translation service is crucial for major corporations. The wording in legal documents is critical. Courts of law go strictly by what the legal document states. Incorrect translations could end up costing companies millions of dollars; especially when translating legal documents such as contracts. Chambers are also experienced in other fields.

A step up from translation is Certified Translation. Some documents need to be certified when translated. These include marriage certificates, birth certificates, divorce decrees, work releases, and much more. Documents at Chambers are certified by someone in the field who understands the importance of wording.

Chambers is a translation company, but they offer many more services to assist their clients in growth. They also do interpreting which is a little different from translating. Interpretation is giving a synopsis of what was said every few minutes. This is helpful if the client is a non-native speaker. There are three different levels of interpretation from Chambers. Whispered interpretation is when an interpreter stands close to the client and whispers his or her interpretation as the speaker is speaking. Consecutive interpretation is when the interpreter speaks after the speaker. Simultaneous is when the interpreter speaks at the same time as the speaker. Usually the client has an ear piece and listens to the interpreter through it.

Fees for services at Chambers depend on requirements of clients. A quote can be obtained by going to their website at and clicking on Quote in the menu. Complete the form as clearly as possible and someone will contact you with a quote.

Why do companies like Johnson & Johnson, Sony, Dior, and Reader’s Digest rely on Chambers Translations when they need something translated? It is because of their dedication, attention to detail, and the personal interest they take in every project. They are so trusted that 73% of their business consists of returning customers. They do both large and small jobs with just as much care.

Chambers Translations continues to grow and expand their services to meet the needs of the ever changing business world. They currently translate over 80 languages. They offer courses for those that want to learn a new language. More information is available on the website.

Translation Services Singapore

Summary (100 words)

Translation services in Singapore have become vital to major corporations in the world. A significant portion of the business is done in Asia where the languages and dialects are numerous. Having translation services closer to the region receiving services is beneficial. There are several translation services in Singapore. One of the most respected is Chambers Translations.

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Translation services have become essential to businesses, both large and small. In today’s world, being able to speak to someone in a different country is as necessary and common as speaking to the person in the next room. When conducting business in Asia, chances are you will find some language barriers as many different language are spoken in Asia. It is not practical or possible to hire an employee for every language in the world.

It is much more practical to hire companies who offer translation services. Several companies have been established in Singapore because of the frequency of services needed in Asia. Chambers Translations began in 1995 and are currently translating over 80 languages.

Within Asian languages there are many dialects. Chambers Translations hires only native speaking translators familiar with the different dialects. All translators at Chambers are tested and screened carefully before employment begins. They are familiar with industry verbiage in the target language. During negotiations that comprehension could mean the difference in acquiring and losing a contract.

Chambers Translations also offers certified translations. Certification services are available for divorce decrees, birth certificates, marriage license, legal documents, criminal records, and many more. Chambers translators provide interpretation for meetings and court sessions when needed.

Translation is the art of converting documents from one language to the target language. Some clients request a native speaker of the target language be with them during negotiations or legal hearings. Rather than translating every word, the translator will interpret what the speaker says every three or four sentences. Chambers offers three types of interpretation. Whisper means the interpreter stand close to the client and whisper the interpretation on continual basis. Consecutively means the translator will interpret after the speaker stops speaking. Simultaneous means the translator speaks while the speaker is still speaking, often through an ear piece.

Transcription is the process of converting spoken word into writing and is one of the most vital services offered. It is documenting what is said and done in a meeting or courtroom. These services are provided by native speakers who are familiar with the legal terms or business terms used during the meeting.

Chambers’ attention to detail, efficient service, and low rates have earned them numerous repeat customers. Their business is comprised of 73% returning clients. These clients know the value of dependable service. Chambers Translation stands behind its services and employees. Their clients know that at Chambers they are getting the best translation and interpretation service.

Legal Translation Services

Summary (100 words)

Legal translation services are very specialized services required for contracts, courts of law, and many other legal matters. The linguisticcontraction of two different languages makes translating word for word almost impossible. Companies whichrely on translation services know and understand that. It makes for a much better document if the client and translator work together as a team.Legal Translation Serviceshave not been as common as the language translation services, since they require special skills and knowledge. Chambers legal translation services are very unique in that, the translators work closely with the client to ensure that the final document doesn’t lose the original message.

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Often businesses need legal translation services. Legal translation means the translation of documents within the field of law. Law is a very specialized field and sometimes seems like it has its own language. Due to the serious ramifications of inaccurate translations of the documents, they should be translated by someone who is trained in the field of law.

What should one have in mind when translating legal documents?
• The document is structured for the culture it is written for and should be translated by someone who understands the legal system of both cultures.
• The document is written to define rights and duties of each individual or company. When translating these rights must be made clear in the target language.
• Linguists may not be common in both languages and must be adjusted during the translation.
• Verbatim translations are rarely possible due to the different syntax rules in languages.
• If a legal dictionary is used, it must be of high quality.

Chambers Translations has been offering legal translations for almost twenty years. They understand the vital information in a legal document. An inaccurately translated document could cost the corporation a lot of money. Chambers hires native speaking translators who are experienced in the legal system. These translators understand the legal terminology used in contracts. They are extremely careful that the rights of each individual are spelled out clearly in both languages. The translations are in the syntax or language pattern of the target language without deviation from the meaning from the source text.

Chambers Legal Translation services are available online on, making them accessible to the clients and native speaking translators. They translate over 80 languages. Certification of marriage license, birth certificates, divorce decrees, back to releases, educational transcripts, and many other legal documents is available with the assurance of accurate translations and certifications each time.

Transcription is the act of converting spoken word into written document. This is one of Chambers specialties. The cost and completion time varies with the length and quality of the audio. Chambers transcribesmedia such as audio files, video files, and corporate video. They transcribe for court, medical records, and social media. Their transcriptions are respected in each profession and have been used to assist in legal and medical decisions. Therefore, regardless of the media in which you content which requires translation is, you can have our specialized services by contacting us at +65 6339 1886.

Clients of Chambers know their project will be treated with the respect and urgency it deserves. Each project, whether big or small, is treated as if it belonged to the translator and handled with care and thoughtfulness. Chambers has a guaranteed delivery date with each project. They also guarantee each translation.

Chambers Translations has been serving business translation needs efficiently and affordably since 1995. The quality of their translations and transcripts is second to none.
For more information contact Chambers Translations at or Under the menu tab “Quote” fill out the form with as much detail as possible and a representative will contact you shortly. Chambers can be reached by telephone at +65 6339 1886.

Bengali Translation

Summary(100 words)

Despite Bengali being one of the growing languages, Bengali Translation has not grown as expected. Very few interpreting service providers translate into Bengali. Considering that Bengali is the official language of Bangladesh, and one of the 23 official languages spoken in India, the Bengali Translationservices are expected to be readily available. The economic upswing of India in the past few years has brought the need for more translation services.Consequently, the Bengali Translationservices are gradually picking their grounds, with the establishment of a few translation firms. Chambers Bengali translation is one of the known firms which offer Bengali Translation. If you are in need of translation services, contact us today or email us at Alternatively, you can call us on +65 6339 1886.

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The economic changes in India duringthe last few years cannot be denied or ignored. It is one of the fastest growing economies in the world. The economy has grown with 6.1% per year for the past several years. Much of the growth is due to the beautiful textiles exported from India.

The Bengali language, known by its native speakersas Bangla, ranks 7th in the world and 210 million people consider it their first or second language. Similar to Hindi, it is not an easy language to learn. Each consonant has an inherent vowel which has two pronunciations. Vowels can be written independently, before or after a consonant. There are special conjunct letters which occur in clusters. Moreover, it consists of two basic styles of speech – formal (known as Sadhubhasa) used in both business and literature, and colloquial (called Chaltibhasa) which originated from street dialects and is used in the everyday conversations.

Chambers Bengali translation has been serving the translation needs ofbusinesses since 1995 and quickly has become one of the most respected services in the industry. Bengali is one of the 80 languages they translate and interpret. With the economic boom in Bangladesh, the need for translators has risen drastically. Chambers Translations has an office in Singapore to be close to the region, allowing the clients greater access to needed support. That support includes translations, interpretations, certified translations, typesetting and transcriptions.

Chambers Bengali translation hires only native speakers with professional background in translation, transcription and interpreting. Bengali translators also have extensive knowledge and experience in legal, medical, pharmaceutical, and other specific areas. Chambers knows that the words used in contracts or other legal documents can either make money for the company or cost them plenty. One mistake in a contract could cost a fortune.

When a certified translation is needed, Chambers Bengali translationhas the service to meet that need. The company is able to certify birth certificates, death certificates, divorce decrees, back to work releases and many more legal documents. Like with all the services Chambers offers, they stand behind the project they complete. They handle each project, whether large or small, as if it were their own. By the time their project is completed, the clients have become part of the Chambers’family. This, along with the confidence that their business is in good hands, is among the reasons why they remain loyal to the company and continue to trust it with further projects. 73% of Chambers Translations’ clients are in fact returning customers.

Moving to a new country can be extremely difficult. Unfamiliarity with the local customsand traditions can make for some embarrassing moments. Especially if the new arrival is in a position of authority, any faux pas can cost the unsuspecting foreigner the respect of the native employees. For example, it’s good to know that age, gender and status differences do matter for the Bangladeshis, and hierarchy should be respected and observed by every newcomer who wants to fit in this society. Addressing people with a higher social status by their first name would be considered impolite or even offensive. The same applies for showing the soles of one’s shoes or feet, as well as greeting, eating or drinking with the left hand. There are many and more things to learn about the complex culture, traditions and etiquette in Bangladesh.

Having a deeper understanding of all this is very beneficial. Chambers provides trainings to foreign employees or contractors going to Bangladesh so they are familiar with the language and culture from the time they step off the plane.

Chambers Bengali translation rates are some of the lowest in the industry. They complete each and every project in a timely manner and guarantee to meet any deadline they accept. With almost 20 years of experience, low rates, guaranteed satisfaction, experienced professionals, and native speakers, Chambers is able to offer services unmatched by any other translation company.

English to Vietnamese Translation

Summary(100 words)

English and Vietnamese are two ever changing languages. English has become less formal in the last two hundred years. Even the business world speaks and writes a more casual language than the ‘lawyerese’ that plagued the world in the 19th century. Vietnamese has been a changing language with the introduction of a new alphabet in the early 20th century. Translating a business document from one of these languages into the other (English to Vietnamese or Vietnamese to English) is not a simple task and one would do well to hire respected English to Vietnamese translation services. Get reliable translation services at

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The isolated Vietnam of the late 20th century no longer exists. In 2000 the Ho Chi Ming Security Trading Center was established. Foreign ownership of equities was limited to 20% and 40% for bonds. In July 2003, foreign ownership was raised to 30% for equities and unlimited for bonds. After registration, foreign participants a securities transaction code was issued allowing the investor to take part in the exchange. The stock exchange was renamed Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchange (HoSTC) in 2007.

The invitation for foreign participation has increased the need for translation services able to translate English documents and verbal communication into the Vietnamese language. Both languages have changed considerably in the last 100 years.

English is less formal than it used to be. Business English is less ‘lawyerese’ than it once was. Some English words have been borrowed or derived from other languages. With the advances in technology also comes new terminology that is not easily translated. Vietnamese became the official language of Vietnam in 1954 after their independence from French colonial rule. The fairly young professional vocabulary is still developing. Some words are borrowed or derived from Chinese and French.

English is a fairly guttural language meaning the sounds are made from the back of the throat. Vietnamese is a tonal language, meaning the sounds are made at the front of the mouth. English sounds are made with 24consonants, 23 consonant clusters,14 vowels, and 3 diphthongs. When digraphs, blends and different sounds of vowels, the English language has 44 sounds or phonemes. Vietnamesehas 24consonants, 0 consonant clusters, 28 diphthongs, 12 triphthongs and 11 vowels, 3 diphthongs and semivowels, each with diacritic marks that determine the pronunciation.

Grammar is determined by completely different rules for the two languages. English is determined by subject, verb agreement and time, such as past, present, and future. Grammar in Vietnamese is determined by word order and sentence structure.

The differences in the two languages make translating a difficult task. When accuracy is important such as legal documents or contracts, an experienced translating service is essential. Chambers Translations Services began in 1995 and quickly became one of the most respected translation services serving Asia, and respected for its effectiveness in English to Vietnamese translation services. They have a reputation for treating each project as if it were their own. Services are rendered in a timely manner and guaranteed for accuracy. Translators at Chambers Translations have experience in the professions they translate for. This allows them to know the professional terminology, resulting in a more professional document or negotiation. The translation from English to Vietnamese or Vietnamese to English is done by native speakers of the language, to ensure that best services are offered. Chambers \Translations offers other services such as three levels of interpretation. If a company desires, Chambers Translations will send an instructor to teach Vietnamese to employees that would rather not use a translator. The translation services can be accessed by anyone, anytime by just logging into or emailing them on

China, Chinese and Translation

Chinese is originally the indigenous speech of the Han majority in China, and belongs to the Sino-Tibetan language family. Mandarin, the standard Chinese, or Putonghua, is the official language in both the People’s Republic of China and the Republic of China, as well as one of the four official languages in Singapore. It is one of the six official languages of United Nations.
There are other varieties of Chinese, such as Cantonese, Min Nan, Hakka and Shanghainese dialects, etc. Cantonese is widely spoken in Guangdong and is the official language of Hong Kong together with English. Min Nan is a local language in southern Fujian and Taiwan, and in Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia known as Hokkien. Almost all dialect speakers in China can communicate in Mandarin after the prevailing of Putonghua in 1982. So far, about one-fifth of the world’s population speaks some form of Chinese as their first language.
There are two types of standard Chinese written languages: simplified Chinese characters and traditional Chinese characters. Simplified Chinese characters are used in Mainland China while the traditional characters are currently used in Hong Kong, Macau and republic of China, and among overseas Chinese communities. Traditional characters can still be read and understood by most mainland Chinese and Singaporeans. Simplified character were derived by decreasing the number of stokes of traditional Chinese characters, or characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to one simplest character. Compared with the variety of spoken Chinese, the two types of written Chinese saved a lot of troubles for users. Chinese characters were classified into six categories by a scholar named Xu Sheng in Han dynasty, including pictographs, simple ideographs, compound ideographs, phonetic loans, phonetic compounds and derivative characters. Very few were categorized as pictographs, e.g. rén人 (human), rì日 (sun), shān山 (mountain) and shuǐ水 (water) ,etc., and most of the characters were classified as phonetic compounds such as 爸bà (father), combining a phonetic component bā 巴 and a semantic part fù 父.
Since the prevailing of Putonghua in 1982 in Mainland China, Mandarin has been taught and spoken all over China. Pinyin and four tones are used to mark each Chinese character for its pronunciation accuracy and standard accent. Pinyin is the official phonetic system for transcribing the Mandarin pronunciations of Chinese characters into the Latin alphabet in China, Taiwan and Singapore. It is often used to teach Standard Chinese and spell Chinese names in foreign publications and also as an input method to enter Chinese characters into computers. The use of the four tones helps to clarify characters, but there are still many characters represented by the same sound and the same tone yet with different meanings. We called this kind of words homonyms and Chinese is famous for homonyms. For example, “慢”, “漫”, “曼”, “蔓” “幔” and “鳗” all are pronounced the same, marked as “màn” in pinyin, but their meanings varies from one another widely. The first character means slow, the second originally means about to overflow, the third means graceful and soft, the forth means creep and spread, the fifth means a kind of curtain and the last refers to eels. Besides homonyms, there are many polyphonic characters in Chinese. For example, the character “差” has three pronunciations: chà, chā and chāi. As chà, it is an adjective describing a wrong or bad result, or a shortage of something. As chā, it is a noun referring to minus difference, or mistakes. As chāi, it is a verb meaning to dispatch. Therefore, we have to be cautious with both the pronunciation and the selection of words when speaking and writing in Chinese.
Chinese four-character phrase, known as Chengyu in Chinese, is a type of idiomatic phrases and usually a combination of four characters in iambic rhythm, carrying strong artistic colors, widely used in various types of writings in law, business, medical, science, etc. in China. Chengyu do not follow the usual grammatical structure and syntax of the modern Chinese languages, therefore, the comprehension and usage of such phrases require a studying background on Chinese culture, history, classical Chinese and, in some cases, politics. Chinese idioms are mostly derived from ancient literature including myth, story or historical facts, and the meaning of a chengyu is usually beyond the sum of the meanings carries by the four characters. A reminder, warning, lesson or certain morality are always implied in Chengyu. For example, jī quǎn shēng tiān 鸡犬升天 describes the situation that if one person becomes prosperous and successful his surroundings and related persons will be benefited, which derived from an excerpt from a Han writing (《论衡 道虚》). In the writing the author Wang Chong mentioned the story of the idiom. The emperor who started the reign of ancient China in Han Dynasty is Liu Bang and he had a grandson Liu An fascinating about going up to heaven and live forever. Liu An at last found an old monk who gave him some refined pills. Liu An took the pills and rose to the heaven. The chicken and dogs also followed him and ate the pills and rose to heaven as well. The modern meaning of the idiom has been progressed with the changing culture and people’s mind.
Due to a different origin from English, Chinese sentences are structured in a different language rule, such as topic oriented, many ellipsis, few tense markers, a great deal of measure words, different modification rules, adjectives and nouns used as predicates, etc. etc. As a topic oriented language, a rearrangement of the words could make a difference in meaning. For example, “你真是个好人” ( nǐ zhēn shì ge hǎo rén) means you are such a kind person. If we adjust the sequence of the words and make it as “你人真是好” ( nǐ rén zhēn shì hǎo) not only means you are a kind person but also indicates the fondness of the speaker expressed to the listener. In order to avoid ambiguity and wrong message, a correct way to express Chinese becomes important.
Chinese is not an easy language. Though it is spoken by the largest group of people in the world, yet it is not widely used among foreign countries as English. I guess it’s a headache and scares away many foreign learners. But Chinese is not only difficult for foreigners, but our own kind as well. So please don’t be surprised if you ever met a junior high student who cannot follow the official Chinese news broadcast. However, with the development of Chinese economy and its growing influence in the world, the number of Chinese learners are growing.
China has developed very fast since its opening to the world in 1982, and its economy and consumption power has been growing since then. In the last couple of decades, the growing middle class in China has attracted international attention. As early as 1999 it was estimated that 36.6% of China’s wealth rested in the hands of this growing middle class. According to Global Wealth Report 2013 released by Anllianz Group, China has the biggest growth in middle class and has reached the number of 413 million.
On the heel of this sight, many retailers from various industries entered China to expand their markets and many had successfully developed. Opportunities in China are not limited to retailers, but in small and medium enterprises too. Though China varies its policies now and then, yet the demands in Chinese market is as high as ever. Chinese consumers, whether individuals, corporations or the government, are all looking for better quality in products or services, and are willing to pay for a fine price for it. China still attracts many foreign investments. The data of international investments in China provided by Bloomberg Businessweek in November of 2013 are shown as follows:
The biggest surge is from the European Union, totaling $6.4 billion January through October, a 22.3 percent increase. U.S. companies, too, upped investment by 12.4 percent to reach $3 billion. And Japanese enterprises put in $6.5 billion, slightly more than the EU sum, a 6.3 percent rise. The largest amount came from Hong Kong due to its historical enterpot role that totaled $63.5 billion, an increase of 10.5 percent.
Translation is a profession.
People who can speak and write in bilingual or multi-lingual languages might not be so good at translation. A good translation requires familiarity with the culture of original and target languages and years of training and learning. Translators must be always keen on learning and able to motivate himself/ herself on language skills. A sloppy or lazy person will not be able to go far in translation. Besides, translators also have to keep well informed with the latest theories in the industry and apply them in his/her daily practice. A popular saying among the translators is “there is no perfect work, but there is always a better output”. Here are several translation cases in idioms which present the intricacy of translation.
Premier Deng Xiaoping once proposed China to keep a low profile in handling international issues, and he used the idiom “韬光养晦”( tāo guāng yǎng huì) to express the idea. Some of the translators failed to grasp the accurate meaning and translated it as “hide one’s ability and pretend to be weak” which misinterpreted the initiation and motivation of Deng Xiaoping. A well-known idiom “守株待兔” (shǒu zhū dài tù) learnt by primary school students in China and appeared frequently in newspaper is not always done properly. How should we render the deep meaning? If we translate it as “stand by a stump waiting for the appearance of a hare”, it doesn’t make much sense to the English readers. Well, if we improved it as “stick to old practice and refuse to have a change”, though it starts making sense but still lacks certain western cultured flavors. So maybe a better way to put is “hope for gain without pain”.
English has as many idioms and proverbs as Chinese, and its translation into Chinese is equally demanding. “As cool as cucumber” indicates a positive attitude towards all difficulties, so the selection of a Chinese idiom shall reflect the same emotional influence. tài rán zì ruò “泰然自若” here meets the standard. In the famous musical movie “Cabaret” performed in 1972, an impressive song started with the lyrics “Money makes the world go around” which illustrates the reality of the society. The idiom indicates certain helpless attitude and disliking even hatred from the speaker in a mocking way, so a better way to render it in Chinese is yǒu qián néng shǐ guǐ tuī mò “有钱能使鬼推磨” (literally means with a generous amount even ghost will strive himself to work for you).
Translation is not only a process of work from original language to target language but also a transfusion of culture, ideas and attitudes; therefore, a lot of meticulous work is involved.
Chinese and English are two languages with very big differences in pronunciation, characters, phrases and sentences. The Chinese government and schools have put great efforts in English education, but the level of English in China is still low. A great number of Chinese in China couldn’t speak or read in English. In 2013 English First did a world-wide English Proficiency Test which shows that English level in China falls far behind from Asian countries like Singapore and Malaysia and India in spite of China’s highest and longest contribution in English education.
High quality translation is still essential to reach the Chinese market.